Stable Food Supply Of Ancient Egypt, Food Of Ancients Civilizations. Food Of Ancients/Discussion of Cooking Method/Stone Time
Stable Food Supply Of Ancient Egypt, Food Of Ancients Civilizations. The food we eat has transformed profoundly due to innovation & use of technology developed.The archeologists & historians have found useable ovens from the per-agriculturalist world of twenty thousand years ago. Evidences prove that pottery existed before some twelve thousand years ago & we had been storing foods since then. We finally reached the zenith of modern civilizations after discovering the utility of metals and metallurgy. The primitive men were hunters, food gatherers & reaped naturally grown fruits, grains.Once we turned into farmers, we settled down to live in one place & our food habit changed by including more of grains and dairy products. Slowly,innovation technology led us to using fermentation to preserve food. banking, brewing started in the ancient time itself. Much earlier, with the use of fire, inedible vegetable, grains as raw had already become the food which could be eaten. Even though it might not be suitable to call as a gastronomical revelation, the change in taste of food by cooking it on fire resulted in great increase of plant food supply as wheat, barley, rice, millet, rye, and potatoes, require cooking before they are suitable for human consumption. Thus, the use of fire to cook plant foods doubtless encouraged the domestication of these foods.
Early Use Of Fire For Food
The discovery of eating cooked food was merely an accident in the hunting and gather society. Cooking used to be very simple – kill something, throw it on the fire along with whatever vegetables and fruits were found and simply eat it. Cooking equipment consists of a few sticks for skewering meat and vegetables, leaves for wrapping and for baking, a hot flat rock. In the ancient society, food used to be baked in coals or under heated rocks, steamed inside animal stomach and stuffing hot stones which are still practices in some ethnic tribes. An oven could be as simple as a hole in the ground, or a covering of heated stones. The origins of cooking are obscure. Primitive humans may first have savored roast meat by chance, when the flesh of beast killed in a forest fire was found to be more palatable and easier to chew and digest than the raw meat. They probably did not deliberately cook food, though, until long after they had learned to use fire for light and warmth. It has been speculated that peking man roasted meats, but no clear evidence support theory. From whenever it began, however, roasting spitted meats over fires remained virtually the sole culinary technique until the paleolithic period, When the Aurignacian People of southern France began to steam their food over hot embers by wrapping it in wet leaves. Aside from such crude procedures as toasting wild grains on flat rocks and using shells, skulls, or hollowed stones to heat liquids, no further culinary advantages were made until the introduction of pottery during the Neolithic Period.
Although the first cooking method of roasting in fire was discovered by accident, boiling was not discovered by mere chance because it is indeed possible only after careful process achieved with certain tools which is crafted specifically for the purpose. Thus as said earlier, only after human began to live in settlements after domestication of plants and cattle and in the agriculture age, human begun to make pottery, earthenware, stoneware, tools made of wood and stones.
Agricultural Era and Early Settlement
The shift to agriculture and start of settlement in one place for living is believed to have originated in several parts of the world around the same period, including the fertile crescent, a region in the Middle East that cradled some of the earlier civilization. By 6000 BCE, most of the farm animals had been domesticated and by 5000 BCE, agriculture was practiced in every major continent except Australia. Pottery remained the major tools, pots and pans apart from tools made from stones, wood.For cooking foods until the introduction of meals in the Bronze Age. In fact, the growth of ancient civilization which included towns and cities and complex network of trade and commerce developed during the Bronze Age, thus making easier of transfer of ideas, culture and obviously the food of one region to other. Egyptian, Sumerian, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley and many other complex civilizations, developed many tools and equipment for their ease and comfort, but trade became motivating force that had driven the people in exchange of goods, ideas, culture and food.
With the introduction of earthenware in the neolitthic period, there also occurred in the advancement of cooking technique. The roasting spit was augmented by a variety of fired – clay vessels, and the cooking techniques of boiling, stew, braising and perhaps even incipient forms of pickling, frying and oven baking ware added. Early cooks probably had already learned to pre-serve meats and fish by smoking, salting, air-dying or chilling. New utensils made it possible to prepare these foods in new ways and people began to search for more options to make there food more savory and tasty. In there book Ancient Inventions, Peter James and Nick Thorpe describe that the great Civilizations of the Mideast added the important element of vegetable oils to there diets including corn oil, olive oil, rape seed and sesame seed oils. Its astonishing to know that there were fast- food shop in the large ancients cities. Chinese noodle – shops become very popular in the first and second centuries A.D. The Urban roman ate from street stalls that served various meets and breads and wine that way usually thinned with water. Oldest non fast food shop was found in the Sumerian city of Ur. It operated in 1800 B.C.
Food In Ancient Egypt
The cuisine of ancient Egypt evolved over there thousand years, but still retained many consistent traits transferred into Greco-Roman times. The staple of the Egyptians was bread and beer, often accompanied by green- shooted onions,vegetables,meat and fish. Banquets and feast were often organized by kings and riches at that time. here were usually considerable amount of alcohol and abundant supply of foods. The dishes were usually prepared by stewing, banking boiling, grilling, frying or roasting. Spices and herbs were asses for flavor. Meats were mostly preserved by salting, and dates and raisins could be dried for log term storage. The staples bread and beer were usually prepared in the same locations, as the yeast used for bread was also used for brewing. The two were prepared either in special bakeries or, ore often, at home, and any surplus would be sold. The meat consists of whole roast oxen,duck geese,pigeons and fish.For sweets there were cake baked with dates and sweetened with with honey.the use of sugar first became widespread among Arabs in the seventh century. Egyptian food included many vegetables, such as marrows, beans, onions, lentils, leeks, radishes, garlic and lettuces. They also ate fruits like melons, dates and figs. Pomegranates were quite expensive and were eaten mainly by the rich. The Egyptians grew herbs and spices and they made cooking oil.
Food In Ancient Greece
Like Egyptians ordinary Greeks ate plain food. They lived on a staple diet of bread and goats cheese. Meat was a luxury but fish and vegetables were plentiful. Ordinary Greeks ate pulses, onions, garlic and olives. They also ate hens eggs. Peasants caught small birds to eat. The Greeks also ate fruits such as raisins, apricot, figs, apples, pears and pomegranates. Rich Greeks ate many different types of food such as roasted hare, peacocks eggs or iris bulbs in vinegar. Poor people drank mainly water. If they could afford it they added honey to sweeten it. Wine was also a popular drink. usually wine was drunk diluted with water.
Food In Ancient Rome
For more Romans food was basic and monotonous. Nevertheless the Romans introduced new foods into Britain, among them celery, cabbages, radishes, cucumbers, broad beans, asparagus, pears and walnuts. Romans cooked on charcoal stoves. Olive oil was imported. So were olive, figs, and grapes. Wine was imported (although the Romans grew Vines in Britain). The Romans were also very fond of fish sauce called Liquamen. They also liked oysters, which were exported from Britain. The Romans turned cooking into a fine art. They are also known for their fine cookware. Imported Oriental spices were already very popular in ancient Rome. They were used both to preserve food and to enhance its flavor. Rome has left us Apicus’ book, On cookery. Apicus himself is somewhat mysterious. Three famous gourmands by that name lived during the period from the late first century B.C. through the early second century A.D. perhaps the name of Apicus was simply tacked on to a book assembled by other people.
Anglo- Saxon Food
The Anglo -Saxons loved eating and drinking and would often have feasts in the hall. The food was cooked over the fire in the middle of the house; meat was roasted and eaten with bread. They drank ale and mead – a kind of beer made sweet with honey – from great goblets and drinking horns. Vegetables were grown by the Anglo – Saxons. They didn’t have all the vegetables we have today but they did eat peas, beans, parsnips, turnips, leeks, onions, cabbage, lettuce and even garlic. They also had carrots but they were white not orange like today. They also used herbs and plants which would have growth wild, such as nettle and dandelion leaves, mint and mushrooms. Nuts and fruits, such as hazelnuts, apples, pears, strawberries and blackberries, were also eaten by the Anglo – Saxons. The woman cooked in iron cauldrons over open fires or in pottery vessels. They also made butter and cheese. Saxons ate from wooden bowls. There were no forks only knifes and wooden spoons. Cups were made from cow horn. Saxons were found of meat and fish. However meat was a luxury and only the rich could eat it frequently. The ordinary people usually ate plain food search as bread, cheese and eggs. They add not just chicken’s eggs but eggs from ducks, geese and wild birds.
Aztec food was a rich combination of many foods that we take from granted today. Not only is much of this rich diet still common in Mexico today, its spread around the world. In-fact, many of the ancient Aztec foods were flavored with chilli – peppers and contained spicy sauces. In addition, the main food of the Aztec’s was the tlaxcalli, which was corn – meal pancake similliar to the modern day tortilla. This primary as take food was common warped around meat and vegetables in order to make tacos. Meanwhile in certain America maize was the staple diet of the Aztecs. Aztec woman ground the maize into flour on a stones slab with a stone roller. It was then made into flour and baked into a kind of pancake call a tortilla. Aztec woman cooked on a clay disc called comal, which stood on stones above a fire. Also maize was made into a kind of porridge called atole. The Aztec ate ‘envelope’ of steamed maize called tamales. Stuffed with vegetables, meat or eggs. The Aztec also ate tomatoes, avocados, beans, peppers, as well as pumpkins, Squashes, peanuts and amaranth seeds. They also add fruits such as limes and cactus fruits. Aztec food also included rabbits, turkeys and armadillos. They also ate dogs, however meat was a luxury for the Aztecs and ordinary people only ate it infrequently. The Aztecs nobles drank as alcoholic drink octli, From fermented maguey juice. Upper class Aztecs drunk chocolate made from cocoa – beans. It was flover with vanilla and honey. Poor people drank water or sometimes and alcoholic drink called pulque.
Inca cuisine originated in pre – Columbian times in the Inca civilization during 13th to 16th century. The Inca civilization stresched across many different regions, which mean that there was a great diversity of plants and animals used for cooking, many of which remain unknown outside Peru. The most important staples were various tubers, roots and grains. Maize was of high prestige, but could not be grown as extensively as it was further north. The most common sources of meat were guinea pigs and llamas and dried fish was common. Incas also ate peppers, tomatoes and avacados. They also ate peanuts and a grain called quinoa.
Food was prepared on fires of wood or IIama gung using a stone or clay stove so that most food was either boiled or roasted. Maize was either boiled or roasted. Maize was either cooked in the form of small cakes or toasted, while popcorn was considered a special treat. Potatoes were another important staple, and these could be stored by dying or freeze – dying in the form of chuno. The grains quino and canihua were also important, along with the tubers oca, mashua and maca. Grains were prepared by pounding them between stone mortars or with a pestle. Additonal flavours were achieved by adding herbs and spices, especially chili peppers. The most popular drink was the mildly alcoholic chicha, a fermented beer like drink which women prepared by chewing maize or other plants and then allowing the pulp to ferment for several days.
Mayan Food is part of the Mayan culture which is still alive today, and many people in Yucatan Mexico are proud to be part of this culture. Maize was the staple food of the Mayans but they also grew beans, chilies, sweet potatoes and squashes. The Mayans also ate fruit like papaya, watermelon and avocados. The Mayans ate animals like deer, turkeys, dogs, peccaries(wild pigs) and a kind of rodent called an agouti. They also fished. The Mayans also kept bees for honey. One of the main reasons for potatoes and other forms of root vegetables playing a large part in the Inca diet was because the root crops had the ability to withstand low temperatures. In the mornings people ate ‘Porridge’ made of maize and chilies called saka. During the day they ate ‘dumplings’ made of maize dough with vegetables or meat inside them. The ‘dumplings’ were called tamales and they were wrapped in leaves from maize plants. The main meal was in the evening. people ate maize ‘pancakes’ called tortillas. They were eaten with ‘Stew’ made with vegetable and Sometimes meat. The Mayans drank an alcoholic drink called blache. Maya nobles drank chocolate.
Food In The Middle Ages
The food changed drastically during the middle ages. Up to the start of the Middle Ages. Up to the start of the Middle Ages when William the Conqueror and Normans invaded England the only real influence on the types of food consumed had been from the Romans. The Violent times of the Dark Ages led to a Primitive Society Lacking in elegance or refinement. Early Middle Ages food was basic and the ingredients were home grown. This all changed in 1066 with the Norman Conquest and between 1095 – 1270 when Europeans looked to the Eastern World and joined in the crusades. During the Middle Ages rich people ate a very good diet. They ate beef, mutton, pork and venison. They also ate a great variety of birds, swans, herons, ducks, blackbirds and pigeons. In the castle kitchen the cook and his staff turned the meat – pork, beef, mutton, poultry, game – on a spit and prepared stews and soups in great iron cauldrons hung over the fire on a hook and chain that could be raised and lowered to regulate the temperature. Boiled meat was lifted out of the pot with an iron meat hook, a long fork with a wooden handled slotted spoon.
In addition to roasting and stewing, meat might be pounded to a paste, mixed with other ingredients, and served as a kind of custard. A dish of this kind was blankmanger, consisting of a paste of chicken blended with rice boiled in almond milk, seasoned with sugar, cooked until very thick, and garnished with fried almonds and anise. Another was mortrews, of fish or meat that was pounded, mixed with bread crumbs, stock and eggs and Poached, producing a kind of quenelle, or dumping. Both meat and fish were also made into pies, pastries and fritters. Sauces were made from herbs from the castle garden that were ground to a paste, mixed with wine, verjuice (the juice of unripe grapes), vinegar, onions, ginger, pepper, saffron, cloves and cinnamon. Mustard, a favorite ingredients, was used by the gallon. In lent or on fast days fish was served fresh from the castle’s own pond, from a near river, or from the sea, nearly always with a highly seasoned sauce. Salt or Smoked herring was a staple, as were salted or dried cod or stock-fish. Fresh herring, flavored with ginger, pepper and cinnamon, might be made into a pie. Other popular fish included mullet, shad, sole, flounder, plaice, ray, mackerel, salmon and trout, pike,crab, crayfish,oysters, and eels were also favorites.
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